A national workshop on "Applications of High Technology for Rural Development" was organised by the Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Madras at Mahabalipuram on anuary 30-31, 1988. The workshop, sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology (DST), was a departure from the usual practice of talking about taking science to villages or about applications of appropriate technology in rural areas; ft was intended to focus on the role of advanced science and technology in rural development. It originated with the Idea that in a country like ours, the premier work on science and technology should be with rural development In mind. The workshop intended to bring the scientists and the village workers Of the voluntary sector together. There were apprehensions whether a meaningful dialogue would be possible between the two. One was afraid that this would become popular science lectures from so called "experts" to non-experts. One wondered whether such a dialogue would result into a fresh understanding of the process of rural development.
To some extent all the apprehensions came true. The workshop partly appeared to be popular lectures by scientists to voluntary workers. The village workers responded by lecturing to the scientists on the problems of corruption and on how the planners lack comprehension of the rural realities. In some sense there was hardly any dialogue. Yet one found the scientists attempting to present their work in different light, often questioning some of the basic assumptions widely prevalent in our scientific community; at the same time village workers often expressed helplessness In combating growing rural problems. This lack of dialogue should have been expected considering that this was the first workshop of its kind.
The inaugural address was delivered by Dr.M.R.Srlnivasan, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission. He emphasized that electricity has an important place In rural development. Biomass, solar energy are important but could not be a substitute for electricity. The keynote address was delivered by Shri Ashok Parthasarathy, Additional Secretary, Ministry of Science and Technology. He emphasised that in a country like ours with such a large population In rural areas and where the urban-rural divide Is very sharp In terms of lifestyles, the theory of "stages of development" shared both by Rostow and Marx is totally inapplicable. One cannot conceive of our country's development in terms of shift of mosto f our population (about 100 crores by 2020) from rural areas to urban conglomerates and from agriculture to modern Industry. He suggested that the sooner we give up copying these Western models and re-examine our problems, the better II would be for our country. [He suggested that we think In terms of creating a continuum from large urban centres to dispersed rural settlements with a ma ority of population In small and medium towns. He urged the scientists and technologists to work for development of technologies which would make this possible.
Mr. R. Suryanarayanan, Agriculture Development Manager, State Bank of India stated that according to his experience, "development agencies often committed a mistake of appearing to teach modem technology and processes to rural areas. He cited an example of widespread use of drip Irrigation in Tamil Nadu for coconut and other plantations, practiced for hundreds of years. Yet the farmers grew very suspicious when the development workers, giving the" name drip irrigation to this practice, attempt to teach the same as a revolutionary technology which is cure to all their ills. .
Dr Ashok jhun jhunwala, IIT Madras, stressed that so far the rural Industries have emphasised development of products for urban markets using rural resources. To be viable these [industries, in addition to using local resources, have to be based to a. significant extent on local skills and satisfy local needs. He also talked about the need for data collection on and recognition of our traditional skills and practices.
Dr B V Ramachandran, former Professor of Genetics, Madras Veterinary College stated that there exist several centres In the country where indigenous genetic breeds have been collected. But very few people know about them because of poor publicity they receive. He also suggested that the practice of semen collection and preservation Is not appropriate to our conditions and should be discouraged.
Dr Vinod Gaur, Director, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, discussed the potential of remote-sensing data from satellites for aiding water management at a micro-regional level. He emphasised that such information, even If easily accessible, would be useful only if the administrative and hydrological boundaries became identical. Secondly, remotely-sensed data' could not replace the wisdom of the farmers who have good understanding of water availability In their own areas perfectly well.
Dr.C.V. Seshadri made the point that energy and lifestyle being woven together, rural energy planning could become fruitful only if energy consumption In various other sectors was drastically reduced.
High technology, according to the background note for the meeting, was to be viewed In terms of the processes rather than products". One wished that this point was made more forcefully - for example, 'transportation'' is not the same as more Maruti cars or millions of two-wheelers made with foreign collaboration. The recommendations, sadly, talked only of the available' scope for doing "sophisticated, frontier science1' in rural-related problems, without attempting to define clearly the notion of high technology.
The discussions.during this workshop clearly brought out the need for some more such dialogues between scientists and village workers - perhaps with the participants on each side better prepared for a dialogue. It may be better in future to have a separate one day session for each of the two groups to work out what would be expected during such a meeting.
Author:Dr. Ashok jhun jhunwala
The Indian Society for Individual and Social Development (ISISD) organized a conference on 'Transience and Transitions in Social institutions", from Dec. 28th 1987 to an. 1st 1988 in Madras. The overall objective of the Conference was 'to discover ways and means to empower-social institutions", - in particular, the institutions of family, community and education - "to play their primary role - I.e., setting the direction of unfolding of the society".
The Conference began with the Executive Director of ISISD outlining the concept of the Conference. The three social institutions family, education and community - define roles, values, norms and beliefs which provide the context where identity of the individual can be crystalised. They also provide the younger generation with idealism, pride of belonging and inspiration. As such, these institutions need to consider today's realities and provide processes of convergence and coherence between individuals and social institutions.
One of the founder-members of ISISD in his keynote address differentiated the concept of "culture state" of India with the "nation state" of India. He referred to the need to strengthen the culture and its Institutions so that there is stability in the context of a changing political, technological and economic reality. On the whole, this set the background to the proceedings and indicated the concerns of the organizing body. The current socio-economic-political reality was taken as given and the Conference was to concern itself wfth the Inability of the Indian social institutions to adapt themselves to this reality. :
The Conference proceedings took place in three parallel sessions, family, education and community. Each session was inaugurated by a keynote address. The most noteworthy keynote address contribution was delivered by Sri Ganapathl Sthapathl, Principal, Mahabalipuram College of Sculpture and Architecture and an eminent authority on Indian architecture. Speaking in the session on community, he outlined the structure of the five traditional guilds that form the community of Viswakarma-Manu (blacksmith); Maya (carpentary); Thwashta (metal work); Slip! (Temple architecture and Town planning) and : Vlswagana (artisans in gold, silver and gems). He also highlighted the teaming processes within these guilds, the neglect that they have suffered in the process of modernization of our society, and their resilience and relevance in the current times. He brought out the need for looking into the principles of organization and knowledge-base of this community and utilize such knowledge in the reconstruction of Indian society.
The following two days were mostly taken up with presentation of various technical papers and discussions around these papers. The sessions devoted to "Community" included a paper on the life of the Warli Tribal Community in Maharashtra. Another paper contrasted the Hindu world view with the "liberal" world view that provided the basis for ideals enshrined In the constitution of India. One of the sessions on "Education" dealt with Traditional education in India in the changing context". The paper presented an outline of our indigenous system of education, traditional modes of learning and knowledge systems, and their significance and relevance in the current context when almost everyone agree that our education system Is in total doldrums.
These technical sessions were followed by panel discussions. One of the panels consisted, of heads of some large industrial establishments. Some of the panelists in this session stressed the need to modernize and industrialize Indian society and pointed out that the traditional world-view of the common people is the greatest obstacle to the process of modernization.
The Conference ended with a panel discussion on "Future Social Institutions". Sri Dharampal, one of the panelists in his statement, pointed out that the images of family, education and community which are current among the elite of India and many countries of the so-called Third World are largely products of theories generated in the West in the 19th century.'He traced the history of family in the West and described how the concepts of family, community, individual freedom and all thinking on education in the West have been derived,from the world-view of a small but powerful minority which constituted the ruling class. During the 19th Century some idealized images of family had been created and these started to disintegrate by the end of 19th Century itself due to various social pressures and the process of modernization.
It is this disintegration that is now the concern, of the Westernized intellectuals in India according to Sri Dharampal and as such this disintegration relates more to the 19th century Western images rather than to the reality of the Indian society. Sri Dharampal further pointed out that the concepts of community and locality have been for a very long time central to the social organization of India. Consequently, Individual freedom as well as the nature,1 structure and meanings of institutions of family as well as education, have been conceived differently in our society. The family for Instance, has been constituent of much larger and complex kinship and territory based groupings. Education was a function of the community and family to which the individual belonged. Given such fundamental differences between the Indian society and the West, 'the confusion of categories must end, a more realistic understanding of what obtains and Its origins must be had, and .. the central rty of every civilization should be understood, to the extent possible, within the civilization's own frame and preferences", Sri Dharampal asserted.
However, there was not much scope in this conference for taking up such a perspective for a serious discussion. It was unfortunate that Sri Dharampal's statement was part of the very last session. Had this statement been made at the very beginning, the conference could possibly have generated very different possibilities.
A meeting of the activists of the Mazdoor Kisan Neet! group took place at Varanasl on 26-27 December, 1987. Fifteen persons from various parts of the country participated in the meeting and took'part In the discussions. The discussions were centered around a basis-paper prepared by the convenor of the editorial board of Mazdoor Kisan Neeti, Sri Sunil Sahasrabuddhey and circulated among the participants earlier. There were three focal themes in the basis-paper namely,
(1) Peasant movements
(2) Future of Mazdoor Kisan Neeti and
(3) Possibility of establishing a Swadeshi Sama ' which would undertake research based on Swadeshi ideas and propagate it in the society.
1. Peasant movements:
In the first session, the present state of the peasant movement in the country was reviewed and the future possibilities were assessed. Dr R K Gandhi, who is the Convenor of the Interstate Coordination Committee of the Peasant Organisations, gave a detailed account of the present state of the peasant movement. The discussion centered around two points: (a) the limitations of an ideology based on 'exploitation through the agricultural price policy' (procurement prices for grains) and (b) the new trends which have surfaced during the recent agitation by peasants in Uttar Pradesh. Most of the participants were of the view that the price policy alone does not reflect the oppression of the "Swadeshi Sama " (i.e. the majority of our people living according to indigenous norms), it is true that a peasant who uses 'modem' techniques in agriculture and sells his produce to the market is directly affected by the price policy. But the modernisation of agriculture itself has been possible only due to the Investment of a portion of the capital accumulated through the looting of the productive power and resources of the majority in the Swadeshi Sama . How does one understand this exploitation? The loot of the hungry and drought-stricken peasants is hidden in the exploitation of the peasant through the price policy. If the movement Is to become a movement for national liberation, It is very essential that it should spread In the Swadeshi Sama . Till now, this has not been achieved in any state. It was not clear how to raise this issue In the peasant movement obtaining at present. One possibility Is to Initiate a debate In the press. Most of the participants were of the opinion that Swadeshi thinking must be strengthened in the existing movement Itself. This way It is possible to expand the scope of the movement along the lines mentioned earlier.'
A major portion of the session was devoted to the peasant movement In Uttar Pradesh and the agitation going on at present. There was unanimity (n the view that many new trends have emerged In this movement. The movement has transcended economic Issues and has strengthened Swadeshi thinking. This way it has provided a new direction. Sri Nlkhil Nigam and Dr.Surendra Suman presented a detailed analysis of the movement and drew the attention of the participants to Its novel features. Sri Nigam drew attention to the Panchayat :ype of decision-making and observed that the ideology of decentralised administration was being born. Dr.Suman emphasised the challenge posed by the movement to economism and felt that Sisauli (Mahendra Tikalt's village) Is emerging as the capital of the peasants. He felt that a peasant state and Swadeshi ideals were taking concrete shape there. Everybody agreed that it was not possible to understand this movement led by a real peasant through Western catagorles of thought and it was commonly felt that more openness in thinking and Swadeshi inspiration were necessary to understand this unique movement,
All the participants were of the opinion that apart from active participation in the organization of peasant movements, their main task was to strengthen Swadeshi thinking and bring it to the fore.
2. Mazdoor Kisan Neeti:
This session began with a review of the editorial policy, distribution and financial status of Mazdoor Kisan Neeti by Sri Sunil Sahasrabuddhey. Taking stock of the activities of the Mazdoor Kisan Neeti Community, the members noted that it had initiated the work of coordination of peasant movement and has been engaged in this task for the past 5-6 years. It was felt that this task has been more or less completed and it was not necessary to emphasis this task anymore. Apart from the publication of the periodical, ft was necessary that the group shoud concentrate on issues related to the Swadeshi Sama and initiate a debate on an alternate social order. The periodical should voice the ideas of the group.
Sri Sahasrabuddhey noted that Mazdoor Kisan Neeti was born at a time when there were no political movements aiming at fundamental changes in the society. Around 1980 such movements started acquiring importance. From that time onwards, there have been significant changes In the editorial policies. Now the group has reached a stage, where, for further evolution of its ideas and expansion of its influence, a new beginning is required even formally.
After discussing the various possibilities It was unanimously agreed that Mazdoor Kisan Neeti will cease publication. From April 1988, a new monthly called "Chhatra Kisan Neeti" will be published from Kanpur. Sri Ganesh Bagaria would take up the responsibility of editing and publication of the monthly. An editorial board was constituted.
3. Swadeshi Thinking:
In the third session, there was a lively discussion on Swadeshi thinking and how best to spread it in the larger society. Initiating the discussion, Sri Sahasrabuddhey put forth the view that because of two hundred years of slavery, whatever is Indigenous and Swadeshi has become restricted to the private domain and whatever is established and accorded respectability in the public sphere is imported and alien. We wear dhoti and pyjama at home and Western dress outside; we speak our own languages at home and speak an alien language outside; in our private life we derive inspiration from religion and negate the influence of religion in public life or become 'secular'; at home we make use of indigenous herbs and medicines and run behind allopathic drugs outside; we adopt the traditional attitude towards resolving disputes in private life and are slaves of the Western legal system outside; we believe in some values in private whereas our public life is based on an entirely different set of values, etc. The basic fact is that there has been a privatisation of our creativity and dynamism. Everything in the public sphere is based on Western ideas serving the interests of the Westernised ruling class. The Swadeshi Sama can move forward only If the privatised creativity and dynamism becomes public. Firm steps had been taken In this direction at one time under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Now the peasant movement has raised hopes of a transformation in this direction again. The essential task in the Intellectual sphere is to clear the path for establishing the privatised ideas, values and outlook of the Swadeshi Sama in public life. To accomplish this, we must undertake research and make efforts to propagate these ideas in an organized manner.
There was an extensive discussion on this, in which the Importance of Swadeshi tendencies in the peasant movement of Uttar Pradesh came up again and again. Some participants emphasized the need for giving a concrete practical shape to the Swadeshi ideas whereas some others felt that at this stage there could only be an informal discussion on the practical aspects and Swadeshi should be viewed more as an act of faith
After a detailed discussion, the following decisions were taken:
(1) An organisation called "Swadeshi Sama " will be registered with the aim of undertaking Swadeshi research.
(2) By the end of 1989 books wilt be published on the following themes:
(a) Swadeshi thinking in the leadership of the peasant movement
(b) B ha rat-India division and Swadeshi view point In post-Independence Hindi literature
(c) The attitude of wealth and glory
(d) In defense of the emotional man
(e) The role of Dharma in the fight against. Westernisation
(f) Poetry on B ha rat-India division
(g) A study of Swadeshi education
(h) An anthology of articles on peasant movement in Mazdooi Kisan Neetl An alternate ideology in the context of Peasant movement.
(3) Several of the participants gave assurance of undertaking research projects.
Islam had a great role to play In almost all the fields of knowledge and science. When Greek philosophy, Indian medicine and Iranian mysticism reached to Muslims, they picked all these sciences without any hesitation and harvested them In their own scheme of things. We find that In the history of Islam, there were various rational schools, which were flourishing along with the theological, orthodox, science and jurisprudence enterprises. Muslims followed the Prophet's, tradition, that "the word of wisdom Is the last property of a believer, wherever he finds It, he should pick It up".
That this glorious past of Muslims In academic fields needs revival, was the basic theme of the Lucknow dialogue meeting between Ulema and modem Islamic Scholars from 27th to 29th january 1988 under the auspicies of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research. The dialogue was held in the Butlar Palace. After the inauguration of the dialogue by Prof Jamal Khawa a (Convenor of the Dialogue), Prof Daya Krishna said that although the, traditional things may now seem to be the stuff for museums, at the same time a need Is felt that the replies to our modem queries should be found from Knowledge grows and should not lapse In traditions.
Maulana Abul irtan Nadvi, a Professor from Nadvatal-Uloom, liucknow, spoke on the theme: 'The arrival of philosophical sciences to Muslims". He gave! a detailed survey of the different branches of science, which were acquired and developed by Muslims. According to Maulana the definition of philosophy is wider and it should encompass all aspects of cognitive and empirical enterprise, i.e. from metaphysics to natural sciences. 'There are two categories of knowledge, rational or philosophical sciences Muslims did not acquire knowledge only from the Greeks, but Maulana said. During the period of Mansur, an Abasid Khaltfah, were translated into Arabic. There Is an interesting story related Callfah was suffering from some stomach ailment. Some person suggested to him the use of the prescription of Indian physicians. The Calif ah did the same, and he was cured. As a result he ordered the translation of the Indian medicine books into Arabic. The basic agency to transmit Indian sciences to the Arab world was the "Baramukhs", who were originally the Buddhists, who had migrated from India, and some of them were successful In getting access to the courts of the Califahs. There is some evidence that Muslims and religious sciences, from Indians as well", Indian medical books In this connection. The learned mathematics from Indians. The greatest evidence in this respect is that the "Arabic Numerals", were originally known among Arabs as al-Arqamul-Hindia (Indian Numerals). The birth of zero (known as ciphor in Arbic) owes its origin to India. In political science there are some evidences, that Muslims benifited from Indian stories like Kalila wa Damna, which was translated by Ibn Mukafah into Arabic and fts origin was Indian. Because Indian philosophy was not systemetized properly, Muslims could not avail from it to the extent as they did in the case of Greek thought, as it was well organised and systamatized.
Muslims adopted Inductive logic instead of Deductive logic. It was the Muslims who first attempted a flight in the air. Abul Farmas of Spain was the first man, who tried to fly In the sky with the help of artificial waxed wings. It is suggested that philosophy and science had their Initial birth place in India, and from India shifted to Egypt, then to Greece and then from Greece to Arabia, but because sciences were systematized by Greeks, so we find a full mention of their philosophy in the history of world thought, where from all the subsequent nations took inspiration for.their respective thought patterns.
Muslims had not developed the rational sciences themselves (Uloom-I-Aqalia), they rather acquired these sciences from other nations i.e. Greeks and Indians. From Alaxenderia Muslims received medical sciences, astronomy, mathematics and pure philosophy.- The Institute for rational and philosophical sciences was established by the great Abbasid Califa 'Mansoor' and this Institute, which was known as House of Wisdom (Baitul-Hikmah) remained the basic centre for alt academic activities and scientific pursuits for at least three hundred and twenty five years.
It Is a common confusion spread by Western scholars and '.Orientalists' that Muslins were only the transmitters and at the most translators of Greek sciences. But, in fact, as has been highlighted by the learned participants in the meeting the Arabs not only translated the Greek philosophy and then transmitted it to the West; they also made valuable and original contributions to it. For example, in Aristotle's philosophy, there was no explanation about the internal relation or nexus between cause and effect. Muslim philosophers brought Ten intelligences' to bridge the gulf and fill the place of the mediatory agencies in the process of causation. In the same way Greek philosophers were not insisting on the necessity of cause of all the causes and seem mostly engaged in giving rational explanation of causation. This addition was made by Muslims and then adopted by Christian scholars and philosophers in medieval ages. Muslims developed Inductive logic Instead of deductive logic, Ibn Tammiyah developed a totally different sort of logic, based on Quranic verses instead of the Greek logical apparatus. The Greek philosophers seem reluctant to accept God without body, but Muslims developed the concept of God, which was devoid of form, in the Aristotalian sense. Nazzam. a Great Muslim philosopher declared that even the fragrance is a body i.e. ft is compossed of atoms.
The allegation that the translation by Arabs of Greek books were not authentic is also totally invalid. Instead the translations made were being prepared In a professional manner, and there were several revisions of these translations which came up with the passage of time and every precautionary measure was taken to assure their authenticity. The Western scholars do not acknowledge the contribution of Musitms to science and philosophy and they stop at the most by giving some passing references to the medieval Arab philosophy which is sheer In justice to this great edifice of knowledge. Europe has benefited from Arab philosophy tremendously. According to Maulana Abdul Bar! Nadvl, ('the European philosophy became theology in East, and Eastern theology was turned Into philosophy by the Westerners". European philosophy shows a great impact of Arab thought on ft, especially from the philosophers like Ghazzali, Ibn Slna and !bm Rushd. Prof. Jamal Khwa a, Hamid Naseem Rafiabadi and Dr Hamid Ali Khan emphasised the point that linguistic philosophy, which has become very famous recently, was long back developed by the Muslim philosophers and commentators on the Quran and books llke ITQAN were produced, which are a living testimony to the fact that Muslims were no! lagging behind in this field; rather we find some Intricate debates regarding syntax, etymology and shades of meaning in their books.
In the Indian context we find that there were great Muslim logicians, who have contributed to Greek logic. From Iran philosophy came to India in the period of the Mughal king Humayan. During the rule of odi dynasty, there was a considerable portion of rational sciences included in the syllabus. Mullah Yazdi (a great logician) came from Iran and , Indian students from Tulbulli went to Iran to learn rational sciences. There were such great scholars of philosophy as Ameer Fatahullah Shirazi. In Pun ab there was Mullah Abdul Hakim Siyalkbthi. In the era of Shahi jahan, Greek sciences were common place. Mullah Mohammad onepuri has written a thesis on the problem of time. However It should be mentioned here, that no separate books were written on philosophy proper; books were usually prepared to meet the teaching needs. The king Sikandar Lodhi used to attend the lectures of Mullah Abdullah Tulbuli. In Gujarat Mullah Zlauddin and Mullah eavan were prominent teachers of logic. Among the disciples of Naseeruddin Tusl who died in 771 Hi ra, were scholars like Mirza anana, Mullah Sadra and Mir Qutubuddln Razl. It Is said that some of his disciples also came to India.
This trend of rationalism was taken further by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Muhsinul Muik, Ubadl, Chirag Ali etc. Prof Harsh Nara!n said that there was a parrallel development In philosophy both in Hindus and Muslims. But It is ironic that both the communities are not aware of this. Hence, the need for exploring the past in this direction. But Prof Harsh N a rain warned that we should be on our guard against the danger of 'free thinking', ff ft amounts to immorality.
The need for systematization 'of Islamic thought was earnestly felt by almost all participants. It was understood that there is a considerable portion of pure philosophy In Islamic sciences, where Muslim philosophers have expressed their views without worrying whether their views are in accordance with Quranic teachings or not. but there is a vast portion as well which deals with the detafls of Islamic belief system, which can be named as 'Philosophy of Religion", Theosophy, theology and philosophy are equally finding their expression in Islamic sciences,
It Is rather a problem of nomenclature for Islamic philosophy - whether it should be called Muslim philosophy, Arab philosophy or Islamic philosophy. But the point was highlighted In the dialogue that Quranic philosophy as such.has not been developed by Muslim scholars. However, there are some individual attempts by people like Ibn Tamiyah and Iqbal In this direction, but no systematic activity has taken place so far. The papers which were presented during the dialogue consisted of "Quranic Science and Semantic Philosophy by Hamid Naseem Rafiabadl, "The philosophy of being and nothingness in the tight of classical Islamic philosophy, by Prof Harsh Narain; "Scientific Method as envisaged by Quran'' by Dr Shams Tabriz Khan; "Philosophical sciences among Muslims in Mediaval India" by Furkh alali; "Semantic Philosophy and Muslim Scholasticism" by Dr Sanaullah Mir (Parwaz) and "Islamic philosophy of Meaning" by Dr Hamid All Khan. Among the distinguished scholars, who participated in almost all aspects of this philosophical dialogue were Prof Daya Krishna, Prof Dev Ra , Prof Raj Narain and Prof Roop Rekha Verma.
The West has portrayed a picture of various aspects of sciences, where oriental philosophers and scientists do not get any proper appreciation. For example, when development of philosophy from the Greek period onward is shown, there is no detailed mention of the long interval between Greeks and modem philosophy, and it has been shown as If philosophy has abruptly taken flight from ancient Greeks to modem Europe. But after a close scrutiny, we find that Greek philosophy was developed by Muslim philosophers and many revisions were made by them and it was developed to the extent where it could become a totally different enterprise. Ghazzali, about five hundred years before Descartes propounded a systematic method of doubt, which is in no respect less Important than that of Descartes. But there is no mention in histories of philosophy about this method. M.M.Shartf, In his famous book 'The Sources and Achievements of Muslim Thought", has gone to the extent of saying that Ghazzali was the first philosopher, who could accomodate sense-experience, rational discourse, and intuition in his philosophy in a comprehensive way. From Descartes onwards, there were several attempts to do justice with all these sources of knowledge, but we find that there is only evidence of partial approach to one or other of these sources of knowledge. It was after a hectic endeavour that Bergson could mention a type of intuitionism, but that too not fully spelt out in a proper manner. But Ghazzali, centuries before, had successfully provided the paradigm in this direction.
The philosophical dialogue between Ulema and modem scholars was a great Inspiring factor In the effort to evacuate the old and new contributions of the Muslim scholars in the field of philosophy and science. It was resolved in the meeting, both by Muslim and Hindu scholars, that a new history of philosophy and thought should be written, In which ail the nations should get proper representation and their contributions to world philosophy should be highlighted.