Four-symposia were organised during the Congress under the Health Section. Papers were presented, by eminent Vaidyas, Hakims, Botanists, Sociologists etc., on four topics namely :
1) Science and Sastra
2) Some Insights into Aushadhikaran
3) Presentation of Well Documented Case Studies
4) Role of ISM in National Health Programme
The essence of the discussion in each symposium is given here, topic wise. The names of the authors and papers are given at the end of each section.
Science and Sastra
Modern medicine is devoid of tradition and is inadequate in certain fields. The time has come for the integration of systems for the better benefit of human beings. 70% of the health needs of the country are met by the Indigenous Medical Systems. 80% of the deliveries - in some areas were 90% - are conducted by dais, or traditional birth attendants. Such is the importance and relevance of ISM. The scientific elite world is not ready to accept 'sastra' as science, though, by dictionary meaning they are for each other. While Sastra is anadi (without any specific beginning), science has got a specific beginning with a father of science. Sasfra rules all the aspects of life. Even though a person was not finally to learn it, he has to follow the direction of sasfra for sustaining himself. The science is the systemised corpus of knowledge to be augmented by subsequent followers. The terms science and sastra are only complementary and do not have the same meaning in the context of Ayurveda. There is a trend among many Ayurvedists to corelate inappropriately certain Ayurvedic terms with modern terms for eg: Vata as wind or acetyl-choline, Pitta as bile or adrenaline and Kapha as phelgm or histamine. Every civilization has its own cultural heritage on which sastra is built. Hence, it is unrealistic and- unscientific to corelate or compare sciences developed in various places. It is better to treat Ayurvedic learning as a distinct knowledge system which has grown in its own indigenous way and understood on its own terms.
The conceptual basis of our sastras is understood to be from sookshma (subtle form) to sthoola bhaava (gross form) unlike that of western science which is from sthoola bhaava to sookshma bhaava... Man is a complex being. Health is the balance of biological, physical mental and spiritual aspects. A holistic system is needed for a cent percent perfection in meeting his health needs. Ayurveda is a comprehensive ' sasfra ' developed by sages giving sensible explanations and without any limitations. Ayurveda not being merely a biological knowledge system describes the complete way of life. The settled knowledge of sastra, erected on time tested basic principles, are superior to the ever changing modem science which is often unsteady even at th'e basics. It is not just a science. It is science, philosophy and religion.
Names of the persons who spoke in this session
1) Vd. B.V.Sathaye, Bombay - Chairperson
2) Vd. V.B.Mhaiskar, Baroda - Chairperson
3) Shri.A.V.Balasubramanian, Madras - Introduction to the theme of the session
4) Vd. K.H.Krishnamurthy, Pondicherry - The Depth of Informatics from the Ancient Sanskrit Technical Works - An Illustration from the Food Plants of Sushruta
5) Dr. Kulkarni, Hyderabad,- Methodology of Indian Medicine: Towards a New Perspective
6) Dr.T.Sripathi Rao, Hyderabad - Atharva Veda: An Ulterior Modem Science
7) Dr.Jayant Y.Deopujari, Nagpur - Ayurvedic Research Methodology: A Perspective
8) Dr.D.K.Dewanga, Bhilai - Interlocking Sastra and Science.
9) Dr.R.Rangesh Pa ramesh, Bangalore - Dichotomy of Science and Ayurveda.
10) Dr.Pranabjyoti Bhaishya, Varanasi - Studies on Teratogenic Factors as described in
11) Dr.Sivarama Prasad V., Hyderabad - Is Ayurveda a Science or Sastra.
12) Dr.T.G.Vinod Kumar, Trivandrum - Sastra - A Search for Reality.
13) Dr.M.KApte, Raigad - Tarjaneenyaya to Achieve Holistic Approach.
14) Dr.T.S.Krishnakumar, Calicut - Tantra and Ayurveda.
15) Dr.S.P.Tiwari, Jaipur - Marma Sharir and its influence on the Development of Martial Arts .
16) Shri.K.K, Somani, Bombay - Is Allopathy a Science?.
Some Insights into Aushadhikaran
In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, pharmaceutics is not so far recognised as a separate branch. However, its developed form could be seen in Ayurvedic texts. Among, the four fundamentals for Ayurvedic treatment (Bhishak, Dravya, Upasthatha, Rogi), the drug is given the second place. The drug needs some kind of processing before it is used internally for therapeutic purposes. For processing of drugs, certain pharmaceutical techniques have been evolved which play an important role in altering/inducing natural/therapeutic properties of drug and in converting these into pharmaceutical suitable form/compound to convert drug for internal use.
Dravya or drug is one among the four factors in treatment
The dravya as should have suitable qualities and one should be able to process and use the dravyas in many ways. Ayurvedic classification of dravyas and the concept of Panchavidha Kashayakalpana are the basis of aushadikarana
Dravyas are classified into:
1. Doshaprasamana - those which establish equilibrium of doshas
2. Dhatupradushana -those which induce vitiation of the doshas
3. Swasta Vrittikara -those which maintain health
Sources of Dravyas
1. Jangama ie. of animal origin - these are of eight varieties like meat honey, milk etc.
2. Bhasma - metal/mineral origin - gold, iron etc. The metals were known to Indians since Vedic period - 5000 BC - the use of metals for therapeutic purpose was started from the period of Ayurvedic classical texts like Charaka and Susruta - 800 -600 BC - with a detailed knowledge of its pharmaco therapeutic properties and processing techniques.
3. Audbhida - vegetable origin - root.bark, resin, leaf etc. Basis of Ayurvedic Aushadikaran.
Panchavidha Kashyakalpana or five fold breaking down and erecting new substance.
1. Swarasa Kashaya - fresh expressed juice
2. Kalka Kashaya - paste
3. Kwatha Kashaya -decotion
4. Hima Kashaya - cold infusion
5. Phanta Kashaya - hot infusion
I. Shodhana - Purification
The process involves the removal of physical and chemical impurities that alters the expected pharmaceutical j action. It is of two types:
1) Samanya shodhana - heating the substance till red hot and immersing it in taila,
takra, gomutra etc.
2) Visesha shodhana - specific processes for each substance
Proper study of the effect of sodhana on morphological microscopical charecters, physical and chemical studies and pharmacological activities justify the scientific importance of sodhana process in purification and enhancement of derived pharmacological effects.
II. Marana - Incineration
Here metals and minerals are treated with herbal extracts and desired heat is applied by puta system. Puta system means metallic/minerals drugs are treated with vegetable extracts and made into a pellet and closed in sarava samputa (in between earthen lids) and then subjected to heating with specific pit. The process is repeated several times. Bhasma is obtained through this process, by repeatedly incinerating the shuddha dravya by treating it with various substances,
Bhasma pareeksha (Test for good bhasma)
1) Varitaratwa - the good bhasma floats in water
2) Rekhapurnatwa - when bhasma is brushed between the thumb and index finger, it penetrates between the finger grooves
1) Apunarbhavatwa - if the bhasma is mixed with guda, gunja, tankana, madhu or ghrita
and put to fire, it will not return to its original stage.
2) Nirutha - if it is mixed with roupya and fire is applied roupya will not lose its weight.
III Jarana/Bandha - it is the process of binding to impart stability
Several books available on Ayurveda prior to 10th century AD, like Charakha Samhita , Susruta Samhita , Astanga Hrudaya, Astanga Samgraha, Chikitsa Kaiika etc., have mentioned the use of different pharmaceutical processing, alcoholic preparations like asava and arishta , fatty preparations, different infusions, special technique for powdering of drugs as well as the method of its potentiation etc. There are descriptions for the principles of these pharmaceutical processings which.are very often and frequently applied in the modern pharmacies.
Name of persons who spoke in this session
1) Vd. Brahmananda Swamigal, Coimbatore - Chairperson
2) Vd. Vilas M.Nanal, Pune - Chairperson, Introduction to the .theme of the session
3) Dr.S.A.Dahanukar, Bombay - Modern Assessment of Ayurvedic Drugs
4) Dr.A.V.Sharma, Varanasi - Pharmaceutical Processes before Tenth Century A.D.
5) Dr.Mangala B., Mysore - Pharmacodynamics in Ayurveda - How Scientific
6) Dr.Damodar Joshi, Varanasi - Metals and Their Pharmaceutical Processing techniques as Mentioned in Ayurveda
7) Shri.M.N.Pal, Calcutta - Drug Helps Harmony in Function of Bioenergy: An Insight from Ayurveda
8) Dr.S.K.Chaturvedi, Varanasi - Importance of Puta System of Heating in the Preparation of Metallic Bhasma
9) Dr.M.M.Joshi, Pune - Studies on Shodhana Process of Gunja Seeds
10) Dr.Archana Mahajan, Varanasi - Study on Different Extraction Techniques for Drugs mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics
11) Dr.Anjana Chaube, Varanasi - Study on Different Ancient Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Techniques
12) Dr.Ranjan M.Bhatt, Bombay - Scientific Evaluation of Ayurvedic Formulations
13) Dr.Prajapati P.K., Varanasi - Study on the Standardisation of Method of Ayurvedic
Kupipkwa Rasayana Preparations with Special Reference to Makaradhwaja
14) Dr.A.K.Tripathi, Varanasi - Dam Haridra: A drug of Multifarious Action
15) Dr.Shoba Hiremath, Varanasi - A Study on the Methods of Preparation of Kutajarishta for Enhanced Efficacy
16) Dr.H.M.Chandramouli, Mysore - Rationality of Bhasma Pareeksha
17) Vd. S.Rajasekharan, Trivandrum - Upgrading Local Herbal Remedies for Primary Health Care Programme
Presentation of Well Documented Case Studies
Ayurveda defines health as the harmony of the doshas, dhatus, mala, agni all in a state of equilibrium along with mind and sense organs in a pleasant state. The holistic approach of Ayurveda emphasies the necessity of a detailed study of the patient and disease before deciding the treatment. A detailed proforma is needed to document cases on a purely Ayurvedic basis. Some knowledge of 'pramana' is essential for good case taking. Accurate knowledge of disease is the cornerstone for the study of a patient, as Charaka stresses-Jnana purvaka pareeksha. Systematic examination of the patient by Ayurvedic way is always a difficult task due to lack of a universal proforma.
Though modem investigation cannot be carried out before, in between and after treatment according to the necessity, the diagnosis and treatment should be purely based on Ayurvedic ideology and principles.
The patient should be examined in three ways:
1) Darsan: Visual examination by which the nature of body, colour, skin, texture, gait etc. cdn be understood.
2) Sparsana: Palpation, percussion etc.
3) Prasna Interrogation. The cause of disease, patient's likes and dislikes etc are thus understood.
I. Ashtasthana pareeksha includes examination of
1) Nadi - pulse
2) Mutra - urine
3) Mala - stool
4) Jihva - tongue
5) Sabda - sound
6) Sparsa - tactile sensation
7) Drik - eyes
8) Akruti - body
II. Dasavidha pareeksha
1) Dusya - examination of dhatus, mala
2) Desam - examination of Dehadesa(body) and Bhoomidesa (place where the patient lives)
3) Balam - natural strength and resistance towards disease
4) Kalam - time
5) Anala - digestive power
6) Prakrithi - constitution
7) Vaya - age
8) Satwam - mental stake
9) Satmayam - personal likes
10) Ahara - food habits
III. Sroto pareeksha
Examination of the thirteen srotases to understand these courses, presence of any obstructions etc.
After examining the patient by ' darsana ' 'sparsana ' and ' prasna' the disease is diagnosed with the help of
1) NIDANA - Aetiology
2) POORVAROOPA - Prodromal symptoms
3) ROOPA - Main symptoms
4) UPASAYA - Prognosis
5) SAMPARPTI - Pathology
Some of the well documented cases presented in the symposia
I. A case study on clinical efficacy of Gandharvahastaadi Kwatha in Amavata
60 cases diagnosed as Amavata were selected for this study and administered the Gandharvahastaadi kwatha with saindhava guda prakshepaka dravyas for a period of 21 days. The results were interpreted in terms of cured and relieved and 46 were recorded as cured andjl4 were relieved. This kwatha consists of Tiktakaturasas, seven ushna veerya dravyas with pharmaco dynamic action of Rechana, deepana and Pachana karmas which fulfils the line of treatment of the disease.
II. Effect of Nature cure and Yoga on Diabetes Mellitus
1. Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): 60 patients in the age group of
30-90 were selected. Diet mainly consisted of vegetable juice of carrot, spinach, bottle-gourd, sprouts, boiled vegetables, butter milk, curd, skimmed milk, khakhra, green salad. Three to four days after admission most of the patients were able to stop oral hypoglycemic drugs.
Yogasanas - Suryanamaskar, Tadasana, Padahastasana, Paschimottanasana, Suptavajrasana, Bhujarigasana, Saiabhasana, Dhanurasana, Agmsarkriya, Bhastrika Pranayam and Savasana (advised according to the age, sex, physical capacity etc.)
The success of the treatment was 81%
II. Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM): 11 patients were selected. The treatment
given was the same. Four patients responded well to diet control and exercises. 3
patients could reduce insulin requirement by 60%.
III. Study of Praval Panchamrut Rasa on patients suffering from respiratory tract and intestinal infections
50 patients were selected'on the basis of their symptoms namely - cold, cough with or without fever. 250mg was administered twice a day for five days. 96% suffering from respiratory disorders recovered completely.
For intestinal disorders, 15 patients complaining of diarrhoea, presence of mucus or blood in stool, colic pain, and constipation, heavy feeling in stomach etc, were selected. 250mg was administered twice a day for 5 days. 100% recovery was seen.
IV. Role of Vaman without snehapan in ‘Tamak Swas’
The study conducted on patients (15-60), suffering from Tamak Swas for less than 5 years, showed that it is significant in effecting a cure and does not produce any untoward effect.
V. Assessment of 1190 patients at an Ayurvedic clinic,Switzerland
Out of the 1190 patients, 445 were in patients and 745 out-patients; 518-patients suffered from rheumatic complaints, 334 from neuro psychiatric complaints, 293 from psychosomatic complaints, 215 from heart and circulatory complaints, 98 from allergic complaints, 84 from skin complaints and 239 from other unspecified' complaints.
84.87% or 1010 patients when discharged felt a remarkable improvement in their condition. In 45 cases (3.8%) no treatment was possible and patients were sent to other hospitals. Side effects from physical therapies was observed in 82 cases (6.9%) and side effects from Ayurvedic medicaments was observed in 49 cases (4.1%). It was found that the side effects or medications were mostly due to the presence of guggul (Comiphora mukul).
VI. A Study of Pachan and Shodhan treatment in Pravahika - Sama avastha
117 cases diagnosed as Pravahika - sama avastha were selected from age group 15 years to above 60 years. The signs and symptoms were agnimandya, pain in the abdomen, amla pitta, belching, stomatitis, udarstambha, adman, tenderness, enlarged liver, anorexia, pandu, etc. Drugs were selected according to Vyadhibala and Aturabala. 102 cases were given Chitrak Hareetaki 10 gms each twice daily supported by 20ml each of Bhallatakasava and Panchakolasava twice daily. 58 patients were given 10gms of Gandharva Haritaki and bed time for anulomana and 500mg of Aragwadha Kapila Vati at bed time as pakwasaya. 5 patients were given basti for potent stanasamsraya in pakwashaya. Pachan shodhan treatment was followed by Shatphata / tikta ghrita as required.
84 cases responded well and 8 cases did not respond and the fall-outs were 25.
VII. Treatment of some diseases by Agnikarma
Agnikarma producing samyak dagda vrana (therapeutic burning) in the diseased part of the patient is one of the six main Upakramas mentioned by Susrutha. According to Susrutha diseases which are not curable by sastrakarma, Ksharakarma or Bheshajakarma may be treated by Agnikarma chikitsa and diseases successfully treated by Agnikarma have no recurrence:
Results of treatment: 77 out of 101 patients suffering from Kaphavatoibana Vicharchika
were completely relieved.
Sleepada (Elephantiasis) - out of 129 patients 54 were completely relieved, 66 had some relief and 9 had increase in symptoms.
Sandhigraha - out of 61 patients 31 were completely relieved; 23 had some relief.
Purushasthana Vriddhi (gynaecomastia) - only one case was treated and he was completely relieved.
Kadara (Com) - Total patients - 37, -complete relief 22, partial relief - 5.
Gmdhrasi (Sciatica) Total patients - 37, complete relief - 22, partial relief - 5.
VIII. Prevention and control of Bronchial Asthma - a clinical report
Allergic rhinitis and Bronchial asthma could be controlled by taking some precautions like avoiding direct exposure to cold, dust, smoke, etc. Clinical study showed 66% good response, 24% medium and 10% not attained results. Treatment with Ayurvedic medicine to allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma are better compared to modem medicines. They are safe, effective and provide resistance power to body tissues.
IX. Case Studies of Diabetes and Bronchial disorders with Therapeutic reports for two herbal
formulations - Madhu harini and Kasaharini
Ninety eight cases of diabetes melitus were treated with the compound herbal formulation Madhu harini only, constituting the extracts of Tinospora. Cordifolia, Gymnema sylverstris, Momordica charantica and Eugenia jambdlana in appropriate proportions. The reduction in blood sugar levels ranged from 0-25mg in 29 patients, 20-50mg in 36 patients,1 51-75mg in 14 patients, 79-100mg in 6 patients, more than 101mg in 2 patients. 11 patients did not respond to the treatment.
One hundred and fifty five patients of Bronchial Asthma were treated with compound herbal formulation Kasaharini consisting of eighteen herbal ingredients. 51-75% relief was observed in 55 patients followed by 76-100% relief in 44 patients, 26-50% relief in 4331165 and no relief in 10 patients.
X. Treatment of fistula - in - a no by Ksharsutra
Fistula -in-ano and piles form the greatest percentage of diseases pertaining to ano-rectal region. Of them, the former is a disagreeable condition for the patient and often*creates problemslwhich become the source of ihis restlessness. The treatment of fistula-in-ano always posed a problem for the patient and the surgeon alike. The present method of surgical excision of the fistula is not only unsatisfactory owing to ' the high rate of recurrence, but is also full of certain drawbacks like extensive surgery, long hospital stays, economic burden and complications". 'Ksharasutra' is the process involving the application of a specially prepared medicated thread processed with certain- vegetable caustics. The thread is passed into the fistulous tract, tied outside the anal aperture and left in situ for seven days after which it is changed and retied. The patient is sent home after every sitting and is advised to continue his routine works as usual, in due course of time, the thread falls out spontaneously and the fistulous tract is simultaneously healed. The resultant scar formation is very minimal and the method is safe and free from complications.
XI. Case Study on Psoriasis
This is a well documented case study of a psoriasis patient treated in a Siddha hospital. A five year old boy with the complaints of scaly white patches in the head, back and in lip region, since two months, along with itching, tingling, numbness and pin point bleeding in the affected area was admitted in the hospital. A detailed examination was done according to the Siddha diagnostic measures and was diagnosed as Psoriasis. He was treated with effective medicines and advised dietary and routine restrictions. Notable improvement was seen after the treatment.
XII. Therapy of Atopics Eczema with NF-1 + NFL-3 a Unani Combination.
Forty cases of Atopic Eczema were selected after a thorough clinical examination. All cases were treated with NF-1 + NFL-3 for 3 months. After 30 days of treatment the blood investigations revealed a remarkable response to the treatment, after complete treatment, there was a major percent recovery and no relapse case was recorded.
XIII. Yogic management of stress and stress induced diseases (Yoga Therapy)
Since the psychosomatic ailments originate at the mental level, it is obvious that treatment cannot be limited to the body alone. In the integrated approach of yoga therapy, body is treated with suitable exercises, asanas, kriyas, etc. Mental tensions are diffused by yogic practices such as meditation, worship, chantings, etc. In certain conditions yoga therapy may be used as a complimentary method; eg: yogic practices have' been tried for cancer patients along with usual treatments such as chemotherapy.
XIV. Sweta Srava
The commonest complaint in most women is the sweta srava or white discharge. The paper deals with the conditions in which sivefa srava is seen, like Acharana Yonivyapat - where sweta srava is associated with itching, Kapha Yonivyapat – where sweta srava is associated with itching and other Kaphaja disorders, Tridoshaj Yonivyapat - where pain, burning sensation and discomfort at the yoni are associated, Upapulta yonivyapat - due to the indulgence of pfegnent lady in Kapha vitiating foods and activities, Mahayoni - in a displaced yoni or when the yoni tries to come out. It also occurs due to sexually transmitted diseases like phiranga, upadamsa etc. The treatments for such conditions are also dealt with separately.
XV. Case Study in Netrachikitsa
The patient was a 54 year old male having the complaints of gradual painless loss of vision of left eye since 13 years. The modern diagnosis was primary angle closure glaucoma in both eyes and retinal haemorrhage in left eye (Diabetic retinopathy). He was non insulin dependent diabetic and hypertensive. In the first course of treatment Tarpana (7 days) and Nasya were done along with specific internal medication for prameha, blood, pressure and eye disease. The treatment for the 'haemorrhage of retina' was based on raktapitta prakarana. Medicated liver of goat's kid was- also given with strict pathya. By all these, the haemorrhagic spots got absorbed and disappeared. Visual acuity, improved to a great extent
Names of persons who spoke in this session
1) Vd. G.G.Gangadharan, Coimbatore - Chairperson, Introduction to the theme of the session
2) Vd.Vilas M.Nanal, Pune - Case Studies : An Overview of Approach and Methodology
3) Vd. Katti B.S., Nanded - Role of Pachan - Shodhan Treatment in Pravahika - Sama Avastha
4) Dr.M.Srinivasalu, Hyderabad - Study of Clinical Efficacy of Gandharvahastaadi Kwatha in Amavata
5) Dr.D.S.Ijari, Hubli - Prevention and Control of Bronchial Asthma
6) Vd.Durga Pamajpe, Pune * Puberty development - in females - its Ayurvedic Aspects
7) Prof.Jayaprakash Narayan, Madras - The Treatment for AIDS: Prospects in Slddha Medicine
8) Dr.T.Sripathi Rao, Hyderabad - Ayurveda in Renal Diseases
9) Dr.Mahesh V.Sanghavi, Bombay - Kshar Sutra Treatment for Peri-Oricular Sinus
(Nadivran) , Piriodunal Sinus, Tuberculous Lumbar Spine Sinus
10) Dr.R.V.Nisal, Pune - Effect of Nature Cure and Yoga on.Diabetes Melitus.
11) Mrs.SheeJa Kamat, Bombay - Study of Praval Panchamrut Rasa on Patients having
Respiratory and Intestinal Infections
12) Dr.Varsha Deshpande, Maharashtra - Sweta Srava
13) Vd.Rajhans Renuka Sridhar Rao, Nanded - Role of Vaman without Snehapan in Tamaka Swasa
14) Dr.M.Jayatilleke, Sri Lanka - Spiritual Healing as a Challenge to Modem Scientific
15) Prof.Sriram Agashe, Thane - Yogic Management of sress and stress induced dieseases
16) Prof.C.E.Muralidhar, Bangalore - Diabetes and Bronchial Disorders with Therapeautic Reports for two Herbal Formulations- Madhu Hanni and Kasa Harini
17) Dr.R.Chandramani, Bangalore - Spectral Analysis as the Fingerprints of Standardisation for some Herbal Extracts, Churnas, Ghritas and other Formulations.
18) Dr.C.R.Karnick, Aurangabad - Some clinical observations on the effect of Magnetised water and Magnetism on Varied ailments.
19) Dr.R.K.Sharma, Assam - Comparative Study of Churna and Sara(total extract) of two Herbal Drugs with Special Reference to the Actions on Purisavaha Srotas
20) Dr.B.G.Gokulan , Thiruvalla - A Case Study in Netra Chikitsa
21) Dr.D.Jayashankar, Trichy -A Case Study of Psoriasis
22) Dr.K.M.Shyam Sundar,Madras - Degenerative Disease: An Ayurvedic Perspective
23) Dr.J.J.Vijeyapaul, Madras - A Basic Concept and Clinical Profile with Special Reference to Pakshavatham
24) Dr.Rangesh Paramesh , Bangalore - Assessment of 1190 patients at an Ayurvedic Clinic Switzerland
25) Dr.A.Neelakantan , Kottakkal - Treatment of Fistula in Ano by Ksharasutra
26) Dr. P. D.Gupta, Nagpur - Treatment of Some Diseases by Agnikarma
27) Vd.Manjusha Desai, Kolahpur - Case Study in Manoroga Chikitsa
28) Mohd, Ayub Khan, Burhanpur - Therapy of Atopic Eczema with NF-1 + NFL-3
29) Jyoti Gade, Ahmedabad - Empowering Women through Promotion of Beneficial Traditional Health Practices.
Role of ISM in National Health Programme
The role of ISM in the nation's health care is evident when facts reveal that 70% of the health care is carried out by ISM. But national health programmes are considered to be the baby of allopaths, giving ISM no place. This is generated by a concept that ISM has nothing to do with mother and child care, immunisation, family welfare etc. which are the main criteria of the National Health Programme. Preventive, promotive and curative aspects of health can be attained by ISM. Ayurveda classifies medicine into two. One, 'ARTASYAROGANUT ie. to cure the sipk and, two 'SWASTASYORJASKARAM' ie. to maintain the health. It is the second one which can play a vital role in the National Health Programme.
Health is defined in Ayurveda as a state of harmony at the physical level (sama dosa, sama dhatu, sama agni and sama malakriya) and mental level (pleasant mind, soul and sense organs) The World Health Organisation has also laid down that "health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely absence of disease or infirmity." Even this definition of positive health falls short of the definition given in Ayurveda, which includes not only physical, mental and social welfare but also moral and spiritual welfare.
ISM emphasises that "prevention is better than cure" Thus 'prime importance is given to therapeutics that prevents the occurrence of diseases and promotes the health in the healthy.
This includes both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Pharmacological way includes Rasayana and Vajeekarana. These are independent branches of Ayurveda. Non-pharmacological approach includes Dinacharya - daily regimen, Rtucharya - seasonal regimen, Sadvritta - right conducts of life etc. These methods.which are described in detail in Ayurvedic treatises, are part and parcel of our culture and everyone is expected to follow these regimens. The health of a person is influenced by various factors viz. Ahara (food) and Vihara (physical and mental activities). The judicial use of these factors promotes and maintains health. Ayurvedic texts describes the regimens to be followed that favour good health.
In Dinacharya (daily regimen) methods for a better physical and mental hygiene are mentioned. When to get up from sleep, how to brush the teeth and what can be used for that, method and effect of oil massage and bath are some of them. Sadvritta (good conduct) is also described, which when followed not only develops mental qualities but also increases a healthy life span. Respecting God, elders, teachers etc, keeping bodily cleanliness, kind and polite behaviour etc. are some injunctions. The natural urges like micturition, defecation, sneezing, cough, flatus, thirst, hunger, sleep, vomitting etc should not be controlled; at the same time they should not be forced when there is no urge. Controlling natural urges and forced practice, will both cause disease? Mental thoughts, /urges like jealousy, anger, aversion etc, should be controlled. Ahara (controlled diet), Nidra (proper sleep) and Maithuna (well regulated sexual activity) are said to be the three factors supporting the body.
There is no "standard" balanced diet prescribed to all in general. It varies with time (according to the season), person (according to the bodily constitution), place (where he lives), quantity and quality (by avoiding 'viruddhahara' or incompatible food. These can be adopted to overcome malnutrition. In Rtucharya (seasonal regimens), do's and donfs according to the season are mentioned by classifying the seasons into six divisions. The practice of these regimens in daily life will promote health.
The concept of National Health Programme lies in the idea of 'Janapadodwamsa'. In Charaka Samhita (Vimana Stana 3/6) it is stated that even though the persons differ in dissimilar entities like constitution etc. there are other common factors, due to derangement of which the diseases having similar period and symptoms arise and destroys the community. These common factors are - air, water, place and time. Even today we experience that various epidemics and community health problems are due to the contamination of water, air, place and time. So it is clear that if the four entities remain in harmony, the community and nation remain healthy.
The sound background of traditional health system, which meets 70% of the health needs of thje country, can be understood by the following facts:
The small pox inoculation was a widespread practice in large parts of Northern and Southern India before the 18th century.
It may indeed come as a surprise to us to know that there have been in existence various local traditions of surgery and surgical techniques. Some of the areas in which these techniques are known to have existed historically are areas like obstetrics, opthalmology and even plastic surgery. There is considerable evidence in medical as well as the Dharmasastra texts to indicate that caesarian section has been practised in India from very ancient times down to the recent times. It is also now known that there used to be local traditions of surgical treatment for cataract. But perhaps it is in the area of plastic surgery that Indian traditions were very advanced from early times and has a profound influence on the practice of the art in various part of the world. The two early methods practised in India for surgical replacement of nose, the cheek flap method and the median forehead flap method are still used by modem surgeons. In the modem era, the Indian method of total nasal reconstruction was brought to notice by the publication of a report by the British observers in 1794 from where it aroused interest in the west.
One of the important areas in which local health traditions are very strong at least in some parts of the country is the area of bone setting and some parts of the country excel in some of these. For example, two well known bone setting centres are at Puttoor and in Coimbatore. In Puttoor, there is a family which for several generations has been specialising in setting bones. They prescribe a herbal preparation which is applied at the site of the fracture. A well known orthopaedic specialist from Madras who studied these'systems for several years states that the type of sling used [by the Puttoor bone setters'for fractures in the arm, is superior and more flexible than the classical "Guff and Collar" of Western origin which is still used by our orthopaedic specialists.
The most important period both for a child as well as the mother is "garbhini avastha". This
stage in a woman's life calls for a special attention. Ayurveda has a special type of management, which is holistic not only to the mother, but to the j child "as well. That includes the care right from the time of conception, ante natal care to post natal care. Ayurveda describes exclusively a thorough care including particular regimens with and without medicines before and after pregnancy.
Padmasree Dr.S.S.Badrinath once said that the number of cataract cases in the country can be halved by the preventive measures told in ISM. When one goes deep into the science, it will be understood that his statement' is not a hyperbole. Susmtha Samhita devotes entire nienteen chapters to deal with almost all the diseases of the eye;that are come across today and its cure. The advice in Susrutha Samhita (2/35), to the mother to follow a certain regimen right- from the conception to avoid her child being bom blind, highlights the importance given to eye care in Ayurveda The indigenous health care system in India has a rich knowledge base as well as rich resource base. Every community has responded to the challenge of diseases by developing a medical system of their own. They have developed utility of wild plants based on their experience, observations and triaiand error methods to control human sufferings. Tribal medicine is one among them. They diagnose and then treat common ailments with locally available plants. A study of the health care delivery systems of the Karjat tribal block (Raigad district, Maharashtra) reveals the existence of a well organised and functional traditional medical system based on local health traditions. This system is autonomous and community supported. There are traditional practitioners specialised in treatments like Agnikarma, Visha chikitsa, Manoroga chikitsa etc. There are 557 such tribal communities in India which rely upon traditional health care based on herbs utilising 6000 to 7000 species of plants. The method of treatment is simple, popular, inexpensive and available next door. Here are some of the facts and figures which are self explanatory. In the folk medical stream there are millions of housewives, seven lakhs traditional birth attendants, three lakhs herbal healers, 60,000 bone setters and same number of visha-vaidyas according to the available sources. Apart from these specialists in different branches like netra skin, dental, mental diseases, respiratory diseases, arthritis, liver diseases, gastro intestinal tract diseases, wounds, piles and fistula, number upto thousand in each area. A self reliant model of health care can be realised only if these bases are revitalised, strengthened and community supported.
Names of persons who spoke in this session
1) Hakim Syed Kaleefathullah, Madras - Chairperson
2) Vd. B.V.Sathaye, Bombay - Chairperson
3) Vd. G.G.Gangadharan, Coimbatore - Introduction to the Theme of the Session
4) ShriAV.Balasubramanian, Madras - How Speciality Areas in ISM can Contribute to the National Health Programme
5) Dr.Pushpangadan P., Trivandrum - Plant Resource Base of Indian Medicine
6) Shri. Darshan Shankar, Bombay - Lok Swasthya Paramparas and their Significance in the NHP
7) DrXN.Manjunath, Delhi - Role of Indian Medicine in the Promotion of Community Health -an NGO experience
8) Dr.B.S.Nataraj, Bangalore - Role of Ahara in the Maintenance of Health
9) Dr.K.S.Jayashree, Bangalore - Ante Natal Care - An Ayurvedic Approach
10) DrXRShantala Priyadarshini, Mysore - Contribution of ISM in Prevention of Eye Diseases . and Blindness
11) Dr.Mahesh V.Sanghavi, Bombay - Ano Rectal Disorders - A New Dimension
12) Dr.V.Nagaraju, Neyveli - Health Care by Ayurveda in a Public Sector Hospital
13) Ms.Janet Chawla, Delhi - A Woman Centred Revisioning of Traditional Indian Midwife - The Dai as Ritual Practitioner
14) Shri.Kali Chaterjee, Calcutta - Therapeutics and Drugs in Indigenous Medicine
15) DrAC.Kar, Varanasi - Role of SADVRFTTA in Prevention of Disease and Promotion of Primary Health Care
16) Dr.Darshan Shah, Ahmedabad - Ante natal Care
17) Mr.Raj Mani Pandey, Delhi - The Concept of Health in Ancient Indian System
18) Dr.M.Kamil, Aligarh - Unani Drugs and their Standardisation
19) Dr.R.D.Girach, Bhadrak - Folk System of Medicine - One of the Vehicles for Delivering Primary Health Care to Tribal Communities.
20) Dr.GAL.Sathya Rani, Madras - Gender in Indigenous Medicine: Maternity Health
Care System from a Historical Perspective .
21) Dr.Amminuddin, Bhadrak -, Role of Traditional Herbal Remedies in Child Health Care
22) Dr.V.C.Gupta, Hyderabad - Botanical Sources, Conservation and Cultivation of Crude
Drugs Potential of Important Unani Plants Available in Hyderabad Forest Division.
23) Dr.V.S.Ramachandran, Coimbatore - Further Ethnobotanical Study of the Irvlas and the Puiiyas of Coimbatore District I.
24) Dr.S.Seshadri, Pbondi - Traditional Herbal Cure and its Future Potential.
25) Dr.AXTripathi, Varanasi - Role of Ayurveda in National Health Programme.
26) Prof.Y.P.Kohli, Pasighat - Traditional Health Care System of Arunachal Pradesh.
27) Vd. Ramdas Palekar, Karjat - Local Health Traditions of the Karjat Block of
28) Dr.K.K.Singh, Lucknow - Traditional Phytotheraphy in the Health Care of Gond Tribe
of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh.
A. V. Balasubramanian
Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems,
No.2, 25th East Street Thiruvanmiyur,
MADRAS - 600 041.