The number of participants at the traditional industries exhibition was very large. Perhaps around 5000 persons visited these stalls during the six day period. The number of participants at the conference session film and video film shows was generally between 20-30. Many science and technology institutions, voluntary, agencies and educational institutions participated in the activities. Khadi and Village Industries Commission (Bombay), Khadi and Village Industries Board (Maharashtra), Crafts Council of, India, Gramodaya Sangh (Bhadravati), Vikalpa (Varanasi), Gandhian Institutes of Studies (Varanasi), IIT Delhi, Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (Calcutta) among others took part.
The conference sessions were organized under several themes, 1) Organizations and Policy Initiatives 2) Technology and Organizational Needs - I,II,111,IV 3) Regional Variations.4)Choice of Technology 5) Challenges of the Future 6) Traditional Technology - Problems and Prospects. The titles of papers arid authors are summarized below.
Organizational and Policy Initiatives
1. Y.A. Panitrao, Maharashtra State KVI Board, Bombay - 400 056 Village Industrie : Overall Stagnancy in Technological .Development and Slow Transfer of Technology.
2. K. Taori.J.LChoudhari, KV1C, Bombay - 400 056: Pricing and Accessibility of Raw Materials for Traditional Industries.
3. M.Ramakrishnayya, Plot.No.15, SBI Officer's Colony, Moosa Rambaugh, Hyderabad - 500 036, Village/Traditional, Industries: The Need for New Organizational Initiatives.
4. V.Monerio, Mumbai Shramik Sangh, "Sanghharsh", Quarry Road.Bhandup, Bombay - 400 078: Trade Unions, the Unorganized Sector and the Traditional Industries.
Technology and Organizational Needs
1. S.K.Mirmira, Gramodaya Sangha, Bhadravati Dist., Chandrapur, Maharashtra -442902: The Potentialities in Traditional Pottery in India : Science and Technology inputs] required for its Development.
2. T.N.Sharma; Consortium on Rural Technology, D -320, Laxmi Nagar, and Delhi - 110 092: Rural Pottery Industry: An Analysis of the Traditional Art, Skill and Technology - The Need for Upgradation, Standardisation and Dissemination.
3. N.Shah, CTARA, IIT Powai, Bombay: 400 076: Charcoal MakmgTechnologies of India: Past, Present and Future.
4. V.Tripathi, AXMishra, Dept. of A.I.C.H. and Arch, BHU, Varanasi - 221 005: Ceramic Art Tradition - A Case Study
Technology and Organizational Needs -II
1. M.C.Suryanarayana, 7 Gurukrupa, 365/2 Ekbote Colony, Pune-411042: Technology and Organizational Needs of Traditional Industries - Beekeeping.
2. J.K.Gehlawat, Dept. of Chemical Engg., IIT, Kanpur - 208 016: Study of Gur and Khandsari Industry in India.
3. A.K.Agrawal, Research Scholar, Dairy and Food Engineering Discipline, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, HT.Kharagpur- 721 302: Traditional Industry of Indigenous Dairy Products - A Comprehensive View.
4. S.D.Gomkale, CS and, MCR), Bhavnagar - 364 002: Salt Industry in India : A Brief Review on Technology and Organisational Needs of this Traditional Industry.
1. Mrs.Shroff, Vivekanand Research and Training Institute, EXCEL Industries Ltd., Bombay: Wealth Generation through Traditional Skills- Experience of Kunch.
2. B.R.Pai, K.J.Dinesh, KSCST, Bangalore: Science and Technology Support for Traditional Industries- Experiences of Karnataka State Council for S and T.
3. T.Karunakran, Rural Technology'Centre, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Dindigul, T.N.: Technology of Salt Production in South India.
4. V.K.Vijay,College of Tech. and Agri. Engg., Udaipur; R.Prasad, CRDAT, IIT Delhi -110016: A Traditional Technology Woollen Namda Manfacturing in Tonk District of Rajasthan and its Existence.
Technology and Organizational Needs - III
1. S.Khanna, NID, Paldi, Ahmedabad - 380 007: Traditional Indian Toys: Our Heritage of Design, Science and Technology.
2. R.Mokash, NfD, Paldi.Ahmedabad - 380 007: traditional Indian Footwear.
3. Kalpana Desai, Dy.Director, Prince of Wale's Museum, Bombay Ship Building Technology|-the past and the future.
4. M.Madan,CRDT, IIT, Delhi - 110 016: Sericulture.
Anil Date, Professor, Mech. Engg. Dept., IIT Powai, Bombay- 400 076: Traditional
Industry- What can we make of it?
Choice of Technology
1. A Khosala, Development Alternatives, Delhi - 110 016: Choice of Technology and S and T Needs
2. A.Jain, NISTADS, Dr.K.S.Krishnan Marg, New Delhi'- 110 012: Choice of Technology and S and T Needs
3. U.S.Raju, A.W. Date, CTARA. IIT Powai, Bombay - 400 076: Criteria for Choice of Technology and Their use in Ranking of Technology Alternatives.
4. S.Kumar,' BIT, Mesra, Ranchi; A.K.Jha.lT, BHU, Varanasi- 221 005: Flexible Automation in Skill Based Traditional Manufacturing- A Sources of Competitive Advantage.
Technology an Organizational Need
1. R.C.Maheswari, CROAT, IIT/Delhi -110 016: Recycling Waste into Handmade Paper.
A Prorhiling Small Scale Cottage Industry.
2. S.Sundarr c/o.V.S.Sundar, Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore 560 059. The Relevance of Traditional Paper Making Methods in the Present Context.
3. N.C.Krishnan, CLRI, Adyar, Madras - 600 020: Leather Industry of India.
Challenges of the Future
1. B.T.Acharya, Vaikunthbai Research Centre for Decentralized. Industries, Bombay- 400 020: Traditional Industries: Challenges of Future.
2. A.Sadgopal, BJGNJ, Delhi: Traditional Industries: Lessons from the Past and Strategies for the Future,
3. J.Jaitley, New Delhi: Traditional Industries: Lessons from the past and Strategies for the Future.
Exhibition in the area of traditional industries covered 50 stalls. The exhibition covered several areas as summarized below:
1. Pottery - Gramodaya Sangha, Bhadravati
2. Carpet Making - IIT, Delhi
3. Village Leather Industry - KVIC, Bombay
4. Palm Gur and Palm Products - KVIC, Bombay
5. Village Oil Industry - KVIC, Bombay
6. Hand-made Paper - KVIC, Bombay
7. Fiber Working - KVIC, Bombay
8. Beekeeping - Maharashtra KVI Board
9. Sericulture - Maharashtra KVI Board
10. Glass and Ceramics - Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Calcutta.
11. Wood Working, Pottery and Enameling - Gandhian Institute of Studies, Varanasi
12. Bamboo Working - Vinoo Kaley, Nagpur.
Books and Monograph Exhibition
Draft copies of the study reports on IDBI/SIDBI sponsored documentation of Traditional Science and Technology in the area of traditional Industries. The titles of the study report are summarized below.
1. Pottery and Ceramic Ware: S.K.Mirmira, Gramodaya Sangh, Bhadravati Dist., Chandrapur, Maharashtra- 442 902.
2. Beekeeping and Honey: M.C.Suryanarayana, 7 Gurukrupa, 365/2 Ekbote Colony, Pune 411 042.
3. Brick Making: A.W.Date and SMaithel, CTARA, IIT Powai, Bombay 400 076.
4. Iron and Steel: N.B.Ballal. MetaUurgica Engg., Dept., IIT, Powai, Bombay - 400 076 and A.V.Balasubramanian, P.P.S.T. Foundation, Post Box.No:2085, Adyar, Madras - 600 020.
5. Charcoal: N.Shah, CTARA, IIT, Powai, Bombay- 400 076.
6. Tech no-socio-economic survey of Iron and Steel workers: Sunil Sahasrabudhey, GIS, Varanasi- 221 001.
In addition, the book exhibition displayed several other books in the area of Traditional Sciences and Technologies of India. The agencies participating in book exhibition are shown below:
1. National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad.
2. National Book Trust, New Delhi
3. Bombay Sarvoday Mandal
4. Lok Swasthya Parampara Samvardhan Samithi
5. Earth Care, Bombay
6. PPST Foundation
7. Council for Research Unani Medicine, JJ Hospital, Bombay
8. Wiley Eastern
9. National Council for Development Communication, Varanasi
10. Comet Media Foundation, Bombay
A large number of films and (audio visual programmes were conducted to bring tout the science, technology arid social, aspects-of traditional industries. The list of the films screened is given below.
1. Technology Option for Third World (12 min)
2. Sway with Clay (Pottery) (15 min)
3. Handmade paper (Sentinel of Civilization) (15 min)
4. Story of Safety Match (15 min)
5. Charam Ka Chamtkar (Leather) (15 min)
6. Wonder Box (Beekeeping) (15 min)
7. Yesterday and Tomorrow (Village oil) (15 min)
8. Forest Wealth (10 min)
9. NaiRoshni (Edible Oil) (10 min)
10. Story of Seeds (10 min)
11. Improved Technology for Village industries (10 min)
12. Aple Hath, Aamchi Sath (25 min)
13. Indigenous Innovations (60 min)
The presentation in the area of traditional industries brought out vividly the variety of strengths in the traditional industries sector. It became clear from the activities that this sector is currently a major source of foreign exchange for the country. The sessions also brought out the possibilities of an enormous increase in the earnings in view of the capacity to make diverse products both for local and non local consumption.
The need for suitable organization to pool the talents to produce value added products was highlighted. Lijjat experience was suggested as a successful model of organization. The discussion brought out some major weakness as well. The severe competition from alternatives and substitutes to traditional products is currently affecting seriously the marketability of these products and-services: On this account it was felt that it may be necessary to widen the raw material sources for traditional sector to include modem raw materials sources for traditional sector and provide necessary training infrastructure so that traditional skills find expression in the manufacture of various new products. In view of the skills available, even import of technology to provide competitive edge for this sector was considered worthwhile.
Productivity and profitability of traditional sector was also a subject of discussion. It was pointed out that many of these products and services survive in the market despite finance difficulties. It was pointed out that the problem of profitability and productivity arise from invisible subsidy and favorable pricing of inputs to modern production processes. It was indicated that suitable pricing of fossil energy, plantation and mineral raw materials and modern services & utilities could take into account a) the finite nature of the sources modern sectors consume b) the environmental cost, and benefits of these services & sources. Such an approach could help partially solve the problem.
In order to improve the productivity and profitability of this sector under the current conditions following measures were suggested.
1. Reliable raw material supply mechanism under the control of artisans & craftsmen.
2. Suitable organization to pool the talents of artisans and craftsmen to deliver 1) value added products 2) too articulate on policies and structures. 3) Provide raw material supply and marketing support 4) provide financial services 5) identify products with clear market advantage and provide feedback on the market performance of these products.
3. Establish live and active collaboration with technical institutions to provide the necessary R & D services.
4. Firm up arrangement to ensure fair, return to producers, artisans, craftsmen.
Dept. of Chemical Engineering,
I.I.T. Powai, BOMBAY - 400 076.